Environmental, Health and Economic Implications of Emerging Contaminants in Nigeria Environment
Keywords:Emerging contaminants, environment health, pharmaceuticals, economy, Nigeria
The following were the identified and defined classes of emerging contaminants of concern (ECCs): pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), plasticizers, agrochemicals, industrial additives and agents (IAAs), flame retardants (FRs), Nanopar-ticles (NPs), steroids and hormones, gasoline additives. From 1983 to 1990, an estimated 15,000 metric tons of pesticides were reported to have been imported annually. In 2016, a yearly application of about 130,000 metric tons of pesticides was reported for Nigeria. Nigeria’s pesticides imports were worth USD128.671 in that year. Of the applied pesticides, about 85% ended in the environment as contaminants/pollutants. While few individuals in the households or neighbourhoods deal with pesticides, almost all human beings deal with PPCPs. PPCPs are taken to prevent or cure diseases and/or to sustain wellbeing. Nigeria produced 30 % of its PPCPs demands while 70% imported. In 2012, 2013 and 2014, Nigeria imported PPCPs worth USD425 million, USD481 million and USD530 million respectively. In 2018, Nigeria imported PPCPs worth USD606.31 million, while the total amount of pharmaceuticals procured was USD866.16 million. Almost all the candidates of ECCs had been detected in the Nigerian environment. Untoward episodes of pesticides abuse ranging from abuse to death, have been profiled. Some of the factors responsible for these were weak regulatory instruments on accessing these pesticides, bad economy, stigmatization and lack of resilience.
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