Tectonic Setting of the Syenite Around Igarra, Southwestern Nigeria: Constraints from Geochemistry


  • F. C. Ugbe Department of Geology, Delta State University, Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria
  • O. E. Ominigbo Department of Earth Sciences, Federal University of Petroleum Resources, Effurun, Delta State, Nigeria
  • A. O. Akano Department of Geology, Delta State University, Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria


Syenite, Tectonic setting, Geodynamic evolution, Pan-African orogeny, Nigerian basement complex


Syenites are relatively rare within the Nigerian Basement Complex. As a result of their rarity, these rocks have been given less research attention over time and are consequently poorly understood. The syenitic rocks at Igarra were studied to ascertain their tectonic evolution using geochemistry. Sampling was carried out using the survey-type geological field mapping approach. A total of 10 samples of syenitic rocks were collected for laboratory analyses. Compositionally, the rocks are intermediate with regards to SiO2 content (58.02% – 60.58%), having Al2O3 and alkali (Na2O + K2O) compositional ranges of 15.34% – 15.52% and 8.99% – 9.7% respectively. The sampled rocks are similar and consistent in their trace and rare earth elements concentrations (the only exception being Zr with values ranging from 4 ppm to 79 ppm). The rocks are relatively enriched in Ba, K, TI, and Sr but depleted in Tc, Nb, U, Hf, Yb, Te and Ta. The syenites also show fairly high ratios of Rb/Nb and Rb/Sr with mean values of 488.627 and 0.171 respectively. As seen from the geochemical analyses, the syenites around Igarra are high-K calcalkaline, alkalic to alkalic-calcic. The rocks are peraluminous in character as shown by the bivariate plot of A/NK vs. A/CNK. Sedimentary protolith with continental crustal parent magma is inferred for these rocks. The similarity and consistency of the trends of major, trace and rare earth elements is indicative of cogenetic origin for the rocks. The geochemistry and discrimination plots for the rocks indicate geodynamic setting ranging from orogenic to post-orogenic. A volcanic arc geotectonic setting is interpreted for the Igarra syenites, with magma emplacement and evolution thought to have been initiated during the late stages of the Pan-African reactivation and continued into post-orogenic times.


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How to Cite

Tectonic Setting of the Syenite Around Igarra, Southwestern Nigeria: Constraints from Geochemistry. (2023). Journal of the Nigerian Society of Physical Sciences, 5(1), 999. https://doi.org/10.46481/jnsps.2023.999



Original Research

How to Cite

Tectonic Setting of the Syenite Around Igarra, Southwestern Nigeria: Constraints from Geochemistry. (2023). Journal of the Nigerian Society of Physical Sciences, 5(1), 999. https://doi.org/10.46481/jnsps.2023.999